The Role of Teachers’ Experiential Learning and Reflection for Enhanching their Autonomous Personal and Professional Development

Adi Suryani, Tri Widyastuti


Today’s teachers are not only teaching, but they have to fulfill various educational roles. This situation demands teachers to learn continuously. They should develop themselves to improve students’ achievement. To grow continuously, teachers should not just wait for formal, instructed or top-down training or learning. They should be autonomous and self directed. They should be aware and analyze what they need and how they should obtain knowledge or skill that they need. Autonomous teachers learn by reflecting their daily teaching and learning experiences. They use their experience as opportunity to learn. There are three main sources of teachers’ learning: their teaching experiences, sharing ideas in professional communities, and by researching.     


professional development, learning from experiences, professional communities, researching, reflection

Full Text:



Admiraal, W. & Wubbels, T. (2005). Multiple voices, multiple realities, what truth? Students teachers’ learning to reflect in different paradigms. Teachers and teaching: Theory and Practice, 11, 3, 315-329.

Alberta Education (2006). Professional learning communities: An exploration. InPraxis Group Inc., 1-80.

Bielaczyc, K. & Collins, A. (n.d.). Larning communities in classrooms: A reconceptualization of educational practice. In C., M. Reigeluth (ed.). Instructional design theories and models, vol.II. Mahwah NJ. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Birman, B., F., Desimone, L., Porter, A., C. & Garet, M., S. (2000). Designing professional development that works. Educational Leadership, 28-33.

Boekaerts, M. (1996). Self-regulated learning at the junction of cognition and motivation. European Psychologist, 1, 2, 100-112.

Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain. Educational Researcher, 33, 8, 3-15.

Brookfield, S., D. (1995). Becoming a critically reflective teacher. San Fransisco: Jossey-Bass.

Clement, M. & Vandenberghe, R. (2000). Teachers’ professional development: A solitary or collegial (ad)venture? Teaching and Teacher Education, 16, 81-101.

Coleman, H. (2014). Teachers have different needs: How can professional development be made relevant for every teachers? SiliwangiUniversity.

Darling-Hammond, L. (2006). Constructing 21st-century teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 57, 9, 1-15. Retrieved from, on October, 23, 2014.

Darling-Hammond, L. (2006). Powerful teacher education. Lessons from exemplary programs. San Fransisco: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). How teacher education matters. Journal of Teacher Education, 51, 3, 166-173.

Day, C. (1999). Developing teachers: The challenges of lifelong learning. Educational change and development series. Bristol: Taylor & Francis, Inc.

Desimone, L., M., Porter, A., C., Garet, M., S., Yoon, K., S. & Birman, B., F. (Effects of professional development on teachers’ instruction: Results from a three-year longitudinal study. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 24, 2, 81-112.

Desimone, L., M. (2009). Improving impact studies of teachers’ professional development: Towards better conceptualization and measures. Educational Researcher, 38, 3, 181-199.

DuFour, R. (2004). What is a “professional learning community”? Educational Leadership, 6-11.

Esteve, J., M. (2000). The transformation of the teachers’ role at the end of the twentieth century: New challenges for the future. Educational Review, 52, 2, 197-207.

Giles, C. & Hargreaves, A. (2006). The sustainability of innovative schools as learning organizations and professional learning communities during standardized reform. Educational Administration Quarterly, 42, 1, 124-156.

Grasha, A., F. (2002). Teaching with style. A practical guide to enhancing learning by understanding teaching and learning styles. CA: Alliance Publisher, online version, retreived from, on Januray 24, 2014.

Guskey, T., R. (2002). Professional development and teacher change. Teacher and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 8, 3-4, 381-391.

Hammerness, K., Darling_hammond, L., Bransford, J., Berliner, D., Cochran-Smith, M., McDonald, M. & Zeichner, K. (2005). How teachers learn and develop. In L. Darling-Hammond & J. Bransford (eds.). Preparing teachers for a changing world.. What teachers should learn and be able to do. San Fransisco: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Hopkins, D. (2011). A teacher’s guide to classroom research. (4th Ed.). New York: Open University Press.

Hord, S., M. (1997). Professional learning communities: Communities of continuous inquiry and improvement. Southwest Educational Development Lab, Austin.

Ifanti, A., A. & Fotopoulopou, V., S. (2011). Teachers’ perception of professionalism and professional development: A case study in Greece. World Journal of Education, 1, 1, 40-51. Retrieved from, on October, 23, 2014.

Johnson, K., E. & Golombek, P., R. (2002). Teachers’ narrative inquiry as professional development. Cambridge University Press.

Johnson, D., W. & Johnson, R., T. (1975). Learning together and alone. Cooperation, competition, and individualization. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Killpatrick, S., Barrett, M. & Jones, T. (2003). Defining Learning Communities. Discussion Paper. Centre for Research & Learning. University of Tasmania.

Korthagen, F., A. (2003). In search of the essence of a good teacher: Towards a more holistic approach in teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20, 77-79.

Korthagen, F., A. & Kessels, J., P., A., M. (1999). Linking theory and practice: changing the pedagogy of teacher education. Educational Researcher, 4-17.

Morrissey, M., S. (2000). Professional learning communities: An ongoing exploration. Texas: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory, 1-45.

Nurkamto, J. (2014). Engaging language teachers as a way to pursue sustained professional development. Siliwangi University.

Supovitz, J., A. & Turner, H., M. (2000). The effects of professional development on science teaching practices and classroom culture. Journal of Research in Science and Teaching, 37, 9, 963-980.

Stoll, L., Bolam, R., McMahon, A., Wallace, M. & Thomas, S, (2006). Professional learning communities: A review of the literature. Journal of Educational Change, 7, 221-258.

Swann, W., B., Polzer, J., T., Seyle, D., C. & Ko, S., J. (2004). Finding value in diversity: Verification of personal and social self-views in diverse groups. Academy of Managament Review, 29, 1, 9-27.

Thomas, B., C. (1995). Helping teachers teach well: Transforming professional dveleopment. CPRE Policy Briefs. Reporting on Issues and Research in Education Policy, 1-11.

Triandis, H., C. (1989). The self and social behaviour in differing cultural context. Psychological Review, 96, 3, 506-520.

Van Manen, M. (1990). Turning the nature of the lived experience. In M. Van Manen (ed.). Researching lived experience. Human science for an action sensitive pedagogy. New York: State University of New York Press.

Van Manen, M. (1990). Resarching lived experience. Human Science for an Action Sensitive Pedagogy. New York: State University of New York Press.

Vescio, V., Ross, D. & Adams, A. (2007). A review of research on the impact of professional learning communities on teaching practice and student learning. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24, 80-91.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

p-ISSN (1979-5521)  e-ISSN (2443-3527)