Synthesis and Corrosion Test of Magnesium Zinc-5% Hydroxyapatite (MgZn-5% wt.Hap) Biocomposites as a Bone Biodegradable Implant Material

Henni Sitompul, Kiagus Dahlan, Deni Noviana, Marzuki Silalahi, Sulistioso Giat Sukaryo, Yohanes Edi Gunanto


In recent years, development of magnesium (Mg) as biodegradable implant very rapidly in orthopedic applications. This is due to its young’s modulus close to young modulus of natural bone. However, Mg implants demonstrate higher biological activity which could cause high degradation rate in human bio-environment. Consequently, needed to develop Mg-based alloys with superior corrosion performance. In the present study, it has been attempted to develop biocomposite of Magnesium Zinc-5% Hydroxyapatite (MgZn-5%HAp) as biodegradable bone implant. The biocomposites were prepared by adding 5wt.% powders to MgZn powder and then were sintered at temperature 350 oC in vacuum furnace for holding an hour. The characterization of MgZn-5wt%HAp biocomposite was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) while corrosion tested by potensiostat. The SEM / EDS and XRD results indicated that some of the Zn atoms have dissolved in Mg to form a MgZn solid solution. The SEM results also showed that the MgZn-5%HAp biocomposite has a microstructure with a matrix Mg and HAp at the grain boundary. The presence of HAp in the sample resulted in a smaller crystallite size and corrosion rate compared to  the one with MgZn alloy.


MgZnHAp;HAp;Biodegradable implant; Biocomposite

Full Text:



F. Živić, N. Grujović, G. Manivasagam, C. Richard, J. Landoulsi, V. Petrović, The Potential of Magnesium Alloys as Bioabsorbable/Biodegradable Implants for Biomedical Applications. Tribology in Industry.36 (2014) 67-73.

J. Vormann, Magnesium: Nutrition and Metabolism.Molecular Aspect of Medicine. 24 (2003) 27-37.

H Li, Y Zheng, L. Qin, Progress of biodegradable metals, Progress in Natural Science:Materials International. 24 (2014) 414–422.

Y. Chen, Z. Xu, C. Smith, J. Sankar, Recent advances on the development of magnesium alloys for biodegradable implants. Acta Biomaterialia.10 (2014) 4561–4573.

X. Gu, Y. Zheng, Y. Cheng, S. Zhong, T. Xi, In vitro corrosion and biocompatibility of binary magnesium alloys. Biomaterials. 30 (2009) 484–498.

R.K. Singh Raman, Sajjad Jafari , Shervin Eslami Harandi, Corrosion fatigue fracture of magnesium alloys in bioimplant applications: A review, Engineering Fracture Mechanics 137 (2015) 97–108.

Mark P. Staiger, Alexis M. Pietak, Jerawala Huadmai, George Dias, Magnesium and its alloys as orthopedic biomaterials: A review, Biomaterials 27 (2006) 1728–1734.

F. Witte, Norbert Hort , Carla Vogt , Smadar Cohen , Karl Ulrich Kainer , Regine Willumeit , Frank Feyerabend, Degradable biomaterials based on magnesium corrosion, Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science. 12 (2008) 63–72.

A.H. M. Sanchez, B.J.C. Luthringer, F.Feyerabend, R.Willumeit, Mg and Mg alloys: How comparable are in vitro and in vivo corrosion rates? A review, Acta Biomaterialia. 13 (2015) 16–31.

Y. Xin, T. Hu, P.K. Chu, In vitro studies of biomedical magnesium alloys in a simulated physiological environment: A review, Acta Biomaterialia.7 (2011) 1452–1459.

N. Hort, Y. Huang , D. Fechner , M. Störmer , C. Blawert , F. Witte , C. Vogt , H. Drücker , R. Willumeit , K.U. Kainer , F. Feyerabend, Magnesium alloys as implant materials – Principles of property design for Mg–RE alloys, Acta Biomaterialia. 6 (2010) 1714–1725.

F. Witte , The history of biodegradable magnesium implants: A review, Acta Biomaterialia. 6 (2010) 1680–1692.

S.Agarwal, J. Curtin, B. Duffty, S. Jaiswal, Biodegradable magnesium alloys for orthopaedic applications: A review on corrosion, Biocompatibility and Surface Modifications, Materials Science and Engineering:C .68 (2016) 948 -963.

P.N. Lim, R.N.Lam, Y.F.Zheng, E.S.Thian, Magnesium-Calcium/Hydroxyapatite (Mg-Ca/HA) compisites with enhacend bone differentiation properties for orthopedic applications, Materials Letters. 172 (2016) 193-197.

D. Ahmadkhaniha, A. Jarvenpaa., M.Jaskari, M.H.Sohi, A.Z. Hanzaki, M. Fedel, F. Deflorian, L.P. Karjalainen, Microstructural modification of pure Mg for improving mechanical and biocorrosion properties, Journal of Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials. 61 (2016) 360-370.

M.Silalahi, H.Sitompul, J.L.Manalu, K.Dahlan, D.Noviana, A.Dimyati, Novel Technology on Sinthesizing Mg-Zn Biomaterial Using Arc Plasma Sintering, Asian Journal of Applied Sciences. 5 (2017) 518-524.

Y. Song, En-Hou Han, Kaihui Dong, Dayong Shan, Chang Dong Yim, Bong Sun You, Effect of hydrogen on the corrosion behavior of the MgexZn alloys, Journal of Magnesium and Alloys.2 (2014) 208-213.

T.Lei, W.Tang, SH.Cai, FF.Feng, NF.Li, On the corrosion behaviour of newly developed biodegradable Mg-based metal matrix composites produced by in situ reaction, Corrosion Science. 54 (2012) 270–277.

J.Bai, L.Yin, Y.Lu, Y.Gan, F.Xue, C.Chu, J.Yan, K.Yan, X.Wan, Z.Tang, Preparation, microstructure and degradation performance of biomedical magnesium alloy fine wires, Progress in Natural Science: Materials International. 24 (2014) 523–530.

D.Liu, Y.Liu, Y.Huang, R.Song, M.Chen, Effects ofsolidification cooling rate on the corrosion resistance of Mg–Zn–Ca alloy, Progress in Natural Science: Materials International. 24(2014) 452–457.

Y.Li, C.Wen, D.Mushahary, R.Sravanthi , N.Harishankar, G.Pande, P.Hodgson, Mg–Zr–Sr alloys as biodegradable implant materials, Acta Biomaterialia. 8 (2012) 3177–3188.

J.-M. Seitz, R. Eifler, J. Stahl, M. Kietzmann, Fr.-W. Bach, Characterization of MgNd2 alloy for potential applications in bioresorbableimplantable devices, Acta Biomaterialia. 8 (2012) 3852–3864.

M. Bornapour, N. Muja, D. Shum-Tim, M. Cerruti, M. Pekguleryuz, Biocompatibility and biodegradability of Mg–Sr alloys: The formation of Sr-substituted hydroxyapatite, Acta Biomaterialia. 9 (2013) 5319–5330.

L. Yang, Y. Huang, F. Feyerabend, R. Willumeit, C. Mendis, K.U. Kainer, N. Hort, Microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties of Mg–Dy–Gd–Zr alloys for medical applications, Acta Biomaterialia. 9 (2013) 8499–8508.

J.W. Seong, W.J. Kim, Development of biodegradable Mg–Ca alloy sheets with enhanced strength and corrosion properties through the refinement and uniform dispersion of the Mg2Ca phase by high-ratio differential speed rolling, Acta Biomaterialia. 11 (2015) 531–542.

T.Li, Y. He, H.Zhang, X.Wang, Microstructure, mechanical property and in vitro biocorrosion behavior of single-phase biodegradable Mg-1.5Zn-0.6Zr alloy, Journal of Magnesium and Alloys. 2 (2014) 181-189.

H. Li, Q. Peng, X. Li, K. Li, Z. Han, D. Fang, Microstructures, mechanical and cytocompatibility of degradable Mg-Zn based orthopedic biomaterials. Material and Desain.58 (2014) 43-51.

S.Zhang, X.Zhang, C.Zhao, J.Li, Y.Song, C.Xie, H.Tao, Y.Zhang, Y.He, Y.Jiang, Y.Bian, Research on an Mg–Zn alloy as a degradable biomaterial, Acta Biomaterialia. 6 (2010) 626–640.

M.Wang, Bioactive Materials and Processing. In Donglu Shi (editor), Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Springer-Verlag., Berlin Heidelberg, 2004, pp.1-82.

K. Lin, J. Chang, Structure and properties of hydroxyapatite for biomedical applications. In: M.Mucalo (eds), Hydroxyapatite (HAp) for Biomedical Applications. Elseiver Ltd., 2015,pp.1-19.

R.Sammons. Biological Responses to hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) for Biomedical Applications. Elseiver Ltd., 2015,pp.53-83.

ASTM G 102-89. 1999. Standard Practice for Calculation of Corrosion Rates and Related Information from Electrochemical Measurements.

A .Monshi, M.R .Foroughi, M.R.Monshi, Modified scherrer equation to estimate more accurately nano-crystallite size using XRD.World journal of nano science and engineering. 2 (2012) 154-160.

A.K.Khanra, H.C.Jung, S.H.Yu, K.S. Hong, K.S.Shin, Microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg–HAP composites. Bull Mater Sci.33 ( 2010) 43–47.

K.A. Khalil, A New-Developed Nanostructured Mg/HAp Nanocomposite by High Frequency Induction Heat Sintering Process. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 7 (2012) 10698 – 10710.

LL.Shreir, RA.Jarman, GT .Burstein.Corrossion Metal/Environment reactions, Plan a Tree. 2000.

A.K.Nasution, H. Hermawan, Degradable Biomaterials for Temporary Medical Implants. in: F. Mahyudin and H. Hermawan (eds), Biomaterials and Medical Devices, Advanced Structured Materials., Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016, pp 127-160



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.