Sponge Diversity at Pecaron Bay Situbondo Based on Macroscopic and Microscopic Observation

Edwin Setiawan, Awik Pudji Diah Nurhayati, Farid Kamal Muzaki


The sponge species diversity recruited insitu macroscopic observation i.e, underwater photograph for sponges species diversity and spicula microscopic examination for sponges order group specimens have been conducted at Pecaron Bay Situbondo. Seventeen sponges species have been identified out of twenty species. The microscopic examination showed that the Diactinal oxea types were dominant in our 13 samples whereas the monoactinal oxea and style were represented only with 7 samples. Moreover, diactinal type of spicula can be used as an order group of sponges species at Pecaron bay Situbondo.


Sponges species diversity; macroscopic observation; spicules microscopic observation; sponge groups order; Pecaron bay Situbondo

Full Text:



E. Andri, S. Gerbaudo, and M. Testa, 2001, Quaartenary Siliceous sponge spicules in the western Woodlark basin, Soutwest Pacific (Odp LEG 180)‖, Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results Vol. 180.

J. J. Bell, 2008, ―The functional roles of marine sponges, estuarine‖,Coastal and Shelf Science 79: 341-353.

Croce et al., ―Structural characterizations of Siliceous Spicules from Marine Sponges‖, Biophysical Journal 86: 526–534.

N. J. Voogt and D. F. R. Cleary, 2008, ―An analysis of sponge diversity and distribution at three taxonomic levels in the thousand islands⁄Jakarta bay reef complex, West-Java, Indonesia‖, Marine Ecology 29 205–215.

J. N. A. Hooper, 2000, http://www.qmuseum.qld.gov.au/organisation/sections/SessileMarineInvertebrates/index.asp.

J. N. A. Hooper and R. M. W. Van Soest, 2002, Systema porifera: A guide to the classification of sponges‖, Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers, New York, pp 169-172, 403-405, 721-723, 831-832, and 1021.

W. Muller et al., 2004, ―Bauplan of urmetazoa: basic for genetic complexity of metazoan‖, Int. Rev. Cytol: 235, 53-92.

I. Sethmann and G. Worheide, 2008, ―Structure and composition of calcareous sponge spicules: Are view and comparison to structurally related biominerals‖, Micron 39: 209–228.

R. M. W. Van Soest, 1989, ―The Indonesian sponge fauna : a StatusReport‖, Netherlands Journal of Sea Research 23.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12962/j20882033.v20i4.20


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License

IPTEK Journal of Science and Technology by Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat, ITS is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://iptek.its.ac.id/index.php/jts.