Text Mining for Fuzzy-based Emotion Expressions

Surya Sumpeno, Mochamad Hariadi, Mauridhi Hery

Abstract


A model of emotion representation in the form of facial expressions using text mining technique, followed by fuzzy-based mechanisms using Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) is proposed. The model classifies the emotional content of sentences from text input and expresses corresponding emotions by a facial expression. Text input is classified using Na¨ıve Bayes text classifier, while facial expression of a virtual character are controlled by Mamdani fuzzy inference system utilizing results from text classifier. This model is able to show the facial expression with admixture blending emotions. As a demonstration, examples of facial expressions with corresponding text inputs as results from the implementation of our model are shown.

Keywords


text mining; emotion detection in text; Na¨ıve Bayes Method; Fuzzy Inference System; facial expression; virtual character

Full Text:

PDF

References


M.S. El-Nasr, 1988, “Modeling emotion dynamics in intelligent agents”, M.S., Thesis.

M. Minsky, 1985, The Society of Mind, Simon, and Schuster.

J. Cassell, 2000, “Embodied conversational interface agents”, Commun. ACM, Vol.43, No.4, pp.70–78.

J. Cassell, et.al., 1994, “Animated conversation : Rulebased generation of facial expression, gesture and spoken intonation for multiple conversational agents”, pp.413–420.

R.W. Picard, R.W. Picard, and M. Curie, 1995, Affective computing.

T. Danisman and A. Alpkocak, 2008, “Feeler: Emotion classification of text using vector space model”, AISB Convention, Communication, Interaction and Social Intelligence, Aberdeen, UK.

I. Destuardi and S. Sumpeno, 2008, “Klasifikasi emosi untuk teks bahasa Indonesia menggunakan metode Naive Bayes”, Seminar Nasional Pascasarjana, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS) Surabaya.

W.W. Cohen, 1996, “Learning rules that classify e- mail”, AAAI Spring Sympsium on Machine Learning in Information Access, pp.18–25, AAAI Press.

S. Tiun, R. Abdullah, and T.E. Kong, 2001, “Automatic Topic Identification Using Ontology Hierarchy”, Proc.of the 2nd International Conference on Intelligent Text Processing and Computational Linguistics (CICLing), pp. 444–453.

Y. Yang, S. Slattery, and R. Ghani, 2002, “A study of approaches to hypertext categorization”, Journal of Intelligent Information Systems, Vol.18, pp. 219–241.

F. Sebastiani and C.N.D. Ricerche, 2002, “Machine learning in automated text categorization”, ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 34, pp.1–47.

D.D. Lewis, 1998, “Naive (Bayes) at forty: The independence assumption in information retrieval”, pp.4–15, Springer Verlag.

A. Mccallum, 1999, “A comparison of event models for naive Bayes text classification”, In AAAI-98 Workshop on Learning for Text Categorization, pp. 41–48, AAAI Press.

Y. Yang, “An evaluation of statistical approaches to text categorization”, Journal of Information Retrieval, Vol. 1, pp.67–88.

T. Joachims, 1998, “Text categorization with support vector machines: Learning with many relevant features”, pp.137–142, Springer Verlag.

R.E. Schapire and Y. Singer, 2000, “Boostexter : A boosting-based system for text categorization”, Machine Learning, pp. 135–168.

W.W. Cohen and Y. Singer, 1996, “Context-Sensitive learning methods for text categorization”, ACM Transactions on Information Systems, pp. 307–315, ACM Press.

K. Nigam, 1999, “Using maximum entropy for text classification”, IJCAI-99 Workshop on Machine Learning for

Information Filtering, pp. 61–67.

I. Rish, 2001, “An empirical study of the naive bayes classifier”, IJCAI-01 Workshop on Empirical Methods in AI.

A.K. McCallum, 1996, “Bow: A toolkit for statistical language modeling, text retrieval, classification and clustering”, http://www.cs.cmu.edu/ mccallum/bow.

D. Lowd and P. Domingos, 2005, “Naive bayes models for probability estimation”, Proceedings of the Twentysecond International Conference on Machine Learning, pp. 529–536, ACM Press.

K.R. Scherer and H. Wallbott, 1990’s, “international survey on emotion antecedents and reactions (isear)”, http://www.unige.ch/fapse/emotion/databanks/isear.html.

T.D. Bui, 2004, Creating emotions and facial expressions for embodied agents, Ph.D. Thesis, Enschede.

A. Ortony and T.J. Turner, 1990, “What’s basic about basic emotions?”, Psychological Review, Vol. 97, No. 3, pp. 315–331.

P. Ekman, 1992, “An argument for basic emotions”, Cognition and Emotion, Vol.6, No.3, pp. 169–200.

R. Plutchik, 1991, The Emotions, University Press of America,Inc.

P. Ekman, 1993, “Facial Expression and Emotion”, American Psychologist,Vol.48, pp. 384–392.

P. Ekman, 1982, Emotion in the Human Face, seconded,

Cambridge University Press.

C.E. Izard, 1997, “Emotions and facial expressions: A perspective from differential emotions theory”, in The Psychology of Facial Expression, ed. J.A. Russell and J.M.F. Dols, Maison des Sciences de l’Homme and Cambridge University Press.

A. Kappas, 2003, “What facial activity can and cannot tell us about emotions”, in The Human Face: Measurement and Meaning, ed. M. Katsikitis, pp. 215–234, Kluwer Academic Publishers.

A.M. Tekalp and J. Ostermann, 2000, “Face and 2-d mesh

animation in mpeg-4”, Signal Processing: Image Communication, Vol. 15, No.4-5, pp. 387–421.

D.Y.F. Ho, W. Fu, and S. Ng, 2004, “Guilt, shame and embarrassmen : Revelations of face and self”, Culture and Psychology, Vol.10, pp. 64–84.

T. JP, M. RS, F. L, and B. DH. , 1996, “Are shame, guilt, and embarrassment distinct emotions?”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 70, No. 6, pp. 1256–1269.

Keltner and B.N. Buswell, 1996, “Evidence for the distinctness of embarrassment, shame, and guilt : A study of recalled antecedents and facial expressions of emotion”, Cognition and Emotion, Vol. 10, pp. 155–171.

Creed and R. Beale, 2008, “Simulated emotion in affective embodied agents”, in Affct and Emotion in Human-Computer Interaction:From Theory to Applications, pp.163–174, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.

P. Ekman, M. O’Sullivan, W.V. Friesen, and K.R. Scherer,

, “Invited article: face, voice, and body in detecting deceit”, Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, Vol.15, pp.125–135.10.1007/BF00998267.

S.M. Retzinger, 1995, “Identifying shame and anger in discourse”, American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 38, No. 8, pp.1104–1113.

J. Pierce, 2005, “Ludwig : Character and rig v1.0”, http://jasonpierce.animadillo.com/resource/ludwig/ludwi.html.

M.I. Wardhana, 2010, “Ekspresi emosi pada model wajah tiga dimensi menggunakan naive bayes dan logika fuzzy”, Master’s Thesis, Graduate School of Electrical Engineering Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS), Surabaya, Indonesia.

M. Arief, M.I. Wardhana, S. Sumpeno, and M. Hariadi, 2010, “Emotion expression of three dimensional face model using naive bayes and fuzzy logic”, IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, Vol. 10, No. 5, pp. 208–214.

T.C.N.I.E. Commission, 1997., “Iec 1131- Programmable controllers”, tech. rep.

E. Loper and S. Bird”, 2002, Nltk : The Natural Language Toolkit.

Fellbaum, 1998. WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database (Language, Speech, and Communication), The MIT Press.

H. Liu and P. Singh, 2004, “Conceptnet a Practical Commonsense Reasoning Toolkit”, BT Technology Journal, Vol.22, No. 4, pp. 211–226.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12962/j20882033.v21i1.29

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License

IPTEK Journal of Science and Technology by Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat, ITS is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://iptek.its.ac.id/index.php/jts.