An Evaluative Study on Sidoarjo Mud Flow after Phytoremediation Treatment in Milk Fish (Chanos Chanos) Liver

Dewi Hidayati


A sudden discharge of Sidoarjo mud flow into the water bodies would disturb aquatic biota, the fisheries culture. The aim of this research is to evaluate the availability of phytoremediated water of Sidoarjo mud flow (abbreviated: pwmf) as a milkfish culture media using liver histological approach. After two weeks acclimatization period, the juvenile and adult of milkfish were exposed the pwmf at the sub lethal concentration and an acute static bioassay at 96 hours. Control fishes were reared in the artificial brackish water. Each treatment of pwmf exposure was done in three replicates. After exposure, the liver fishes were removed and histologically processed using paraffin method and HE staining. Histopathology change was assessed semi quantitative scoring. The result of the histological analyses suggested the liver pathological features such as vacuolation of hepatocytes, the loss of sinusoid integrity from mild to severe occurrence and necrosis.


histopathology; liver phytoremidiation; milkfish

Full Text:



UNDAC, 2006, “Environmental assesment hot mud flow East Java Indonesia”, Technical Report United Nation Disaster Assesment and Coordination (UNDAC) mission Juni-July. 2006, United NATION.

Hidayati, D. Aunurohim, I. Krismurwani, A. Permatasari, 2009, “Phytoremediation potential of Salvinia molesta and Eichornia crassipes in the water that contaminated by Sidoarjo mudflow”, Proceeding of The International Conference of Biological

Science (ICBS) Gadjah Mada University.

D. E. Hinton, P. C. Bauman , G. R. Gardner, W. E. Hawkins, J. D. Hendricks Muerchelano R. A. & M. S. OIKIHIRO, 1985, “Histopatological biomarkers”. In: RAND, G. M.

Van Der Oost , R, BEYER, J, Vermeulen, NPE 2003, "Fish bioaccumulation and biomarkers in environmental risk assessment”, A review, Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. Vol. 13, pp. 57-14.

E. L. Rodrigues & E. Fanta, 1998, “Liver histopathology of the fish Brachydanio rerio after acute exposure to sublethal levels of the organophosphate Dimetoato 500”, Revista Brasileira de Zoologia, Vol. 15, pp. 441-450.

S. Chang, V. S. Zdanowicz and R. A. Murchelano, 1998, “Associations between liver lesions in winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus) and sediment chemical contaminants from north-east United States estuaries”, –, ICES Journal of Marine Science, Vol. 55, pp. 954 – 969.

Cheville, 1994, N.F. Cheville, “Pathology: An Introduction to Interpretation”, Iowa State University Press, Ames.

D.E. Hinton and D.J. Laurén, 1990, “Integrative histopathological effects of environmental stressors on fishes”, Am. Fish. Soc. Symp. 8, pp. 51–66.

K. D. Oakes & G. J.Van Der Kraak, 2003, “Utility of the TBARS assay in detecting oxidative stress in white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) populations exposed to pulp mill effluent”, Aquatic Toxicology, 63(4), pp. 447–463.

J. C. Van Dyk, G. M. Pieterse and JHJ van Vuren, 2007, “Histological changes in the liver of Oreochromis mossambicus (Cichlidae) after exposure to cadmium and zinc”, Journal Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Vol: 66, Issue 3, March, pp. 432-440.

Knodell R.G., Ishak K.G., Black W.C., et. al.. 1981, “Formulation and application of a numerical scoring system for assessing histological activity in asymptomatic chronic active hepatitis”. Hepatology.;1, pp. 431–435.

Moore Michael John, 1991, “Vacuolation, proliferation and neoplasia in the liver of Boston Harbor winter flounder (Pseudopleuronecte americanus)”, Woods Hole Scientific Community.

S. Thophon, M. Kruatrachue,, E. S. Upatham, P. Pokethitiyook, S. Sahaphong and S. Jaritkhuan, 2002, “Histo-pathological alterations of white seabass, Lates calcarifer, in acute and subchronic cadmium exposure, Environmental”.

Pollution Journal, Volume 121, Issue 3, March 2003, pp. 307-320.

R. Giulio, and D.E. Hinton, 2008, “The toxicology of fishes”, published by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business.

K.H. Barnes, J.L. Meyer, and B.J. Freeman, 1998, “Sedimentation and Georgia’s fishes: An analysis of existing information and future research”, 1997 Georgia Water Resources Conference, March 20-22, 1997, the University of Georgia, Athens Georgia

US EPA, 2005, National Recommended Water Quality Criteria EPA approved June 1, 2010.

Jodo.S, Kungs.J, Chan,V.D, Kobayashi,S, Tateno, M, Lafyatis R, Teju, S. 2002, “Anti-cd95-induced lethality requires radioresistant fcγrii+ cells , A novel mechanism for fulminant hepatic failure”, The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 278, pp. 7553-7557.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
IPTEK Journal of Science and Technology by Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat, ITS is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at