Effect of Fluctuating Load on Fatigue of PPCW Flat Wagon

Teguh Suprianto, Achmad Syaifudin, Lanang Wahyu Pamungkas, Julendra Bambang Ariatedja, Abdul Rohman Farid


Flat wagons are logistic railway vehicles that are always subjected to a heavy dynamic load. One type is the 42 ton flat wagon developed by INKA Ltd., which is well known as PPCW flat wagon. The initial design of this flat wagon was operated using a container. Nevertheless, it can operate safely without a container as well. This study was conducted to mitigate the effect of fluctuating load on fatigue of 42 ton flat wagons as cement carriers, with or without a container. The 3D flat wagon model was built and exported to ANSYS Workbench 19 to simulate the effect of the variable and mean stresses generated within the wagon. Several operational modes were applied to the model, such as an accelerated condition of 0.21 m/s2, a constant straight track, a turn uphill track, an inclined track, a turn downward track, and a decelerated condition of 0.3 m/s2. Transient structural, static structural, and modal analysis types are applied in the simulation consecutively to adapt the track variations. Due to the loading being dominated by compressive load, a negative stress ratio of 1.5 was utilized as the stress ratio of alternating stresses. The numerical study indicated that the straight, turn uphill, and turn downward tracks could exaggerate the stress generated due to dynamic loading. Potential fatigue failure could occur because the dynamic load produced fluctuating stresses, either alternating or mean stresses, that could damage the structural integrity of the flat wagon.


Flat wagon; dynamic load; alternating stress; mean stress; finite element method; Soderberg

Full Text:



M. Minn, S. Brady, J. Cidell, K. Ratner, and A. Goetz, “Shared-use rail corridors: A comparison of institutional perspectives in the United States and The European Union,” Transport Reviews, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 384–407, 2022.

M. Gozali et al., “Failiure analysis of ‘PPCW’ 42ton flat wagon under operation loads,” Jurnal Material Komponen dan Konstruksi, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 1–8, 2015.

H.-A. Lee, S.-B. Jung, H.-H. Jang, D.-H. Shin, J. U. Lee, K. W. Kim, and G.-J. Park, “Structuraloptimization- based design process for the body of a railway vehicle made from extruded aluminum panels,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, vol. 230, no. 4, pp. 1283–1296, 2016.

W. G. Lee, J.-S. Kim, S.-J. Sun, and J.-Y. Lim, “The next generation material for lightweight railway car body structures: Magnesium alloys,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, vol. 232, no. 1, pp. 25– 42, 2018.

J.-S. Kim, J.-C. Jeong, and S.-J. Lee, “Numerical and experimental studies on the deformational behavior a composite train carbody of the Korean tilting train,” Composite Structures, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 168–175, 2007.

Y. Peng, W. Ma, S. Wang, K. Wang, and G. Gao, “Investigation of the fracture behaviors of windshield laminated glass used in high-speed trains,” Composite Structures, vol. 207, pp. 29–40, 2019.

S.-W. Han and H.-S. Jung, “Weight reducing of aluminum extrusion profiles of a railway-car body based on topology and size optimization,” Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 213–221, 2011.

A. Syaifudin, E. M. Nurfadillah, A. R. Farid, and A. Windharto, “Strength consideration on car body of light rail transit making from aluminum extrusion,” in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 1034, p. 012025, IOP Publishing, 2021.

A. Syaifudin, A. Windharto, A. Setiawan, and A. R. Farid, “Energy absorption analysis on crash-module shape and configuration of medium-speed train,” in Recent Advances in Renewable Energy Systems: Select Proceedings of ICOME 2021, pp. 171–179, Springer, 2022.

“Gerbong datar (PPCW),” PT INKA (Persero), 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.inka.co.id/product/view/15. [Accessed: 14-Jun-2022].

ANSYS, “ANSYS Static Structural Theory Guide,” 2012.

E. P. POPOV, Engineering mechanics of solids, pp. 1– 395. 1990.

S. Deng, X. Han, and L. Yang, “Modal analysis and optimization of bus body structure,” in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 1074, p. 012048, IOP Publishing, 2018.

A. H. Kishan and P. Kondalarao, “Transient structural analysis of electric bus chassis frame,” in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 1185, p. 012038, IOP Publishing, 2021.

JIS, JIS handbook: Ferrous Materials and Metallurgy. 2012.

J.-Y. Choi, S.-W. Yun, J.-S. Chung, and S.-H. Kim, “Comparative study of wheel–rail contact impact force for jointed rail and continuous welded rail on light-rail transit,” Applied Sciences, vol. 10, no. 7, p. 2299, 2020.

J. M. Valentino, “Analisa resistance, tractive effort dan gaya sentrifugal pada kereta api Taksaka di tikungan Karanggandul,” FLYWHEEL: Jurnal Teknik Mesin Untirta, vol. 2, no. 1, 2015.

T. Morishita, T. Takaoka, and T. Itoh, “Fatigue strength of SS400 steel under non-proportional loading,” Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale, vol. 10, no. 38, pp. 289–295, 2016.

F. Ogawa, Y. Shimizu, S. Bressan, T. Morishita, and T. Itoh, “Bending and torsion fatigue-testing machine developed for multiaxial non-proportional loading,” Metals, vol. 9, no. 10, p. 1115, 2019.

“Peraturan menteri perhubungan Republik Indonesia nomor KM 44 tahun 2010 tentang standar spesifikasi teknis peralatan khusus,” 2010.

J. L. González-Velázquez, A Practical Approach to Fracture Mechanics. Elsevier, 2020.

A. Syaifudin and J. Ariateja, “Penanganan kasus GD 42 ton : Analisis penyebab kerusakan,” Tech Report, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, 2019.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12962/j25807471.v7i1.14354

Creative Commons License
JMES The International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Sciences by Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat (LPPM) ITS is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at https://iptek.its.ac.id/index.php/jmes.