Modification of Chitosan-Chitosan Phtalate Anhydrides Matrices

Lukman Atmaja, Herianus Manimoy, Lina Eka Arizka


Chitin and chitosan are natural biopolymers on shrimp shells. Chitosan is used extensively as a raw material in various industries. The study aimed to extract chitin and chitosan from fanami shrimp skin through deproteinization, demineralization, and deastilation reactions and to modify the matrix to improve the physical properties. The results of the analysis of the FTIR chitin spectrum shows several major peaks at wave number 3446.91 cm-1 which showed the vibrations of bending secondary amide and amine (NH) secondary amides at 1654.98 cm-1 indicating the presence of vibration stretching CH. The results of the chitosan FTIR spectrum analysis shows symmetrical stretching vibrations at 3433.41 cm-1 due to overlapping OH and amines (NH), stretching vibrations of 1653.05 cm-1 caused by the propagation of C = O stretching and stretching vibrations of 1587.47 cm-1 indicating secondary amide. The results of the characterization with XRD shows that the extracted compounds were chitin and chitosan. In modifying the chitosan matrix, the spectra result show peak at 1656.91 - 1564.32 cm-1 indicating the presence of an amide group. New aromatic group peak found in the area of 1631.83 cm-1 which not found in chitosan. Diffract gram XRD from pure chitosan shows three highest peak peaks at 2θ equal to 609.2; 609.88 and 550 while chitosan-anhydrous modification shows a peak at 2θ equal to 609.8. The addition of anhydrous phthalates to chitosan has reduced its crystallinity which results in an increase in the hydrophilic characteristics of the membrane. The results of this study are expected to be one of the references in further research regarding the manufacture of phthalate chitosan-anhydrous based composite membranes for DMFC


Chitin; Chitosan; Phthalic Anhydride

Full Text:



F. Adam, K. H. Dery, and S. W. Mada, “Perancangan Alat Pendeteksi Kadar polusi Udara Mengunakan Sensor Gas MQ-7 dengan Teknologi Wireless HC-05,” J. Istek, vol. X, no. 2, 2017.

Q. Li et al., “High-Performance Direct Methanol Fuel Cells with Precious-Metal-Free Cathode,” Adv. Sci., vol. 3, no. 11, 2016.

M. Goor, S. Menkin, and E. Peled, “High power direct methanol fuel cell for mobility and portable applications,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2018.

K. Peng, J. Lai, and Y.-L. Liu, “Nanohybrids of graphene oxide chemically-bonded with Nafion: Preparation and application for proton exchange membrane fuel cells,” J. Memb. Sci., vol. 514, pp. 86–94, 2016.

B. Smitha, S. Sridhar, and A. Khan, “Chitosan–poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) blends as membranes for direct methanol fuel cell applications,” J. Power Sources, vol. 159, no. 2, 2005.

B. Ong, S. Kamarudin, M. Masdar, and U. Hasran, “Applications of graphene nano-sheets as anode diffusion layers in passive direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC),” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, vol. 42, no. 14, pp. 9252–9261, 2016.

B. P. Chang, H. M. Akil, and R. M. Nasir., “Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Zeolite-reinforced UHMWPE Composite for Implant Application,” Procedia Eng., vol. 68, pp. 88 – 94, 2013.

B. Tripathi and V. K. Shahi, “Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposite Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications,” Prog. Polym. Sci., vol. 36, pp. 945–979, 2011.

C. Nugraeni, “Montmorilonit Termodifikasi Aptes sebagai Filler dalam Membrane DMFC Berbasis Kitosan Termodifikasi Anhidrat Ftalat,” Intitut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, 2018.

Wan and et al, “Synthesis, Characterization and Ionic Conductive Properties of Phosphorylated Chitosan Membranes,” Macromol Chem. Physic, vol. 204, pp. 850 – 858, 2003.

S. Sonawane, Y. Setty, and S. Sapavatu, Chemical and bioprocess engineering: Trends and developments. CRC Press, 2015.

D. Gómez-Ríos, R. Barrera-Zapata, and R. Ríos-Estepa, “Comparison of process technologies for chitosan production from shrimp shell waste: A techno-economic approach using Aspen Plus® Food Bioprod,” Process, vol. 103, pp. 49–57, 2017.

M. Nouri, F. Khodaiyan, S. Razavi, and M. Mousavi, “Improvement of chitosan production from Persian Gulf shrimp waste by response surface methodology Food Hydrocoll.” 2016.

S. Hajji et al., “Structural differences between chitin and chitosan extracted from three different marine sources,” Int. J. Biol. Macromol., vol. 65, pp. 298–306, 2014.

P. Mukoma, B. Jooste, and H. Vosloo, “A comparison of methanol permeability in Chitosan and Nafion 117 membranes at high to medium methanol concentrations,” J. Memb. Sci., vol. 243, pp. 293–299, 2004.

L. O. A. N. Ramadhan, C. L. Radiman, V. Suendo, D. Wahyuningrum, and S. Valiyaveettil, “Synthesis and characterization of Polyelectrolyte Complex N-Succinylchitosan-chitosan for Proton Exchange Membrane,” Procedia Chem., pp. 114–122, 2012.

F. Ahing and N. Wid, “Extraction and Characterization of Chitosan from Shrimp Shell Waste in Sabah,” Trans. Sci. Technol., vol. 3, pp. 227–237, 2016.

I. Tsigos, A. Martinou, D. Kafetzopoulos, and V. Bouriotis, “Chitin deacetylases: new, versatile tools in biotechnology,” Trends Biotechnol., vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 305–312, 2000.

S. Tan, E. Khor, T. Tan, and S. Wong, “The degree of deacetylation of chitosan: advocating the first derivative UV-spectrophotometry method of determination,” Talanta, vol. 45, pp. 713–719, 2005.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License

IPTEK Journal of Science and Technology by Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat, ITS is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at